Are sabotage of submarine pipelines an ‘armed attack’ triggering a right to self-defence?

Author: Dr. Danae Azaria
Published: 18.10.2022
On 26 and 27 September 2022, explosions damaged NordStream 1 and NordStream 2 pipelines in the Baltic Sea (here). These are major transboundary pipelines (consisting of two pipelines each) transporting gas from Russia to Germany. They cross the territorial sea of three States (Russia, Denmark and Germany) and the exclusive economic zone (‘EEZ’) of five States (Russia, Finland, Sweden, Denmark and Germany). Nord Stream 1 is owned and operated by NordStream AG. NordStream 2 is owned and operated by NordStream 2 AG. Both companies are incorporated in Switzerland. NordStream AG announced that the damages on NordStream 1 took place in…